Nicolas Schoffer (6 September 1912 - 8 January 1992) was a Hungarian-born French cybernetic artist. Schoffer was born in Kalocsa, Hungary and resided in Paris from 1936 until his death in Montmartre in 1992. He built his artworks on cybernetic theories of contol and feedback primarily based on the ideas of Norbert Wiener. Wiener's work suggested to Schoffer an artistic process in terms of the circular causality of feedback loops that he used on a wide range of art genres. His career spans painting, sculpture, architecture, urbanism, film, theatre, television and music. The quest for dematerialisation of the artwork and the pursuit of movement and dynamics became the central themes of his work. He worked with the immaterial media space, time, light, sound and climate that he called the five topologies.